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SOCIAL    AND    POLITICAL    LIFE            171
stand the tremendous emphasis placed on "filial piety/* which is regarded as the "first of all virtues." The Chinese word for "culture" or "religion/* chiaoy is even derived from the word for "filial piety/5 hsiao, being written with the sign for "filial piety" plus a causative radical (meaning "making filial15). So explains the Hsiaoking (Classic of Filial Piety):
Confucius said: "The reason why the gentleman teaches filial piety is not because it is to be seen in the home and everyday life. He teaches filial piety in order that man may respect all those who are fathers in the world. He teaches brotherHness in the younger brother, in order that man may respect all those who are elder brothers in the world. He teaches the duty of the subject, in order that man may respect all who are rulers in the world."
Again, Confucius said:
"Those who love their parents dare not show hatred to others. Those who respect their parents, dare not show rudeness to others."
In this sense he could say to Tsengtse3 his disciple:
"Filial piety is the basis of virtue, and the origin of culture. Sit down again, and let me tell you. The body and hair and skin are received from the parents, and may not be injured: this is the beginning of filial piety. To do the right thing and walk according to the right morals, thus leaving a good name in posterity, in order to glorify one's ancestors: this is the culmination of filial piety. Filial piety begins with serving one's parents, leads to serving one's king, and ends in establishing one's character. ..."
The whole moral philosophy was based on the theory of imitation in society and the theory of habit in education. The method of social education was by establishing the right mental attitude from childhood, beginning naturally at home. There is nothing wrong in this. Its only weakness was the mixing of